cloudalps (hidden peaks)

High Tech Economics – implications from a global perspective.

Platforms – why the concept worked for Microsoft and how Google is porting it into the cloud

In essence, “platform” in the IT industry stands for some common foundation that is used by many independent providers (ISV, SI, ..) but typically controlled by just one or few companies (through a formal consortium or by contractual agreements). In the last few decades, large dominant companies have been established based on such platforms (IBM:Mainframe, Microsoft:Windows) that resulted from their R&D efforts. Their critical differentiation allowed them to orchestrate (i.e. control) evolving “value networks” and draw significant economic rents.

Microsoft, incorporated 1975, is arguably the most successful and instructive case of how an entirely new platform is built from scratch and extended into a dominant business that delivered $174bn of net income over the last 21 fiscal years. Over the longer term (>5y) such profits can only be sustained if the participating members of a value network continue to prosper and therefore have reason to continue supporting the rents extracted by the platform owners. Thousands of ISVs and hundreds of hardware vendors including e.g. Dell only exist because the PC has been so successful which led them to create billions of additional profits thereby strengthening the PC ecosystem and namely Microsoft.

What has been true for the many software companies (ISVs) created in the Windows ecosystem applies to those in the iOS ecosystem – however it is critical to understand that these are different companies, simply because paying 30% revenues (and therefore a multiple of profits) to Apple makes little sense to ISVs that run an established business for one or more decades. On the other end, the platform leaders become busy defending their position – both commercially and in terms of innovation lead. As long as the paradigm (e.g. the concepts of the mainframe, the PC, the AppStore, etc.) on which the leader has built its business remains unchallenged, it is hard for any competitor to challenge that leader.

Cloud Computing or Online Business (in the Web 2.0 sense) qualifies as a developing paradigm shift and hence old and new competitors position themselves to play a significant role, e.g. generate higher profits than those of a contributing member of a platform. Not only does a general platform leader in Cloud Computing not exist yet, but the web was originally  seen as a level playing field where thousands of independent “web services” would interact and deliver according to the requirement of customers. More recently, incumbent ISVs and service providers have positioned cloud computing as a mere extension of virtualized IT while targeting their traditional customer base of large, mature companies.

Google – the undisputed leader in online advertising – is building an unparalleled Cloud Platform which is seldom fully understood. While  its position during its first decade of existence was built as a consumer play (with the most eyeballs tracked in the most accurate details to attract the most advertising spend), Google’s visible ambitions today exceed consumer online search by far. Whatever Cloud Computing will turn out to be over the next 2-5 years (as per Gartner), it will leverage the gigantic scale of the web datacenters, access to individuals and firms ideally including a billing relationship, mobile devices, cloud-specific software development tools and experts.

Besides technological innovation, the biggest driver of Cloud Computing adoption will be Globalization or more specifically the entrance of new competitors from the Eastern hemisphere in most markets of the West. These new ventures from Asia and India will come without any legacy in terms of IT, supply chain and other infrastructure. The young entrepreneurs running them will be used to Web Services, mobile access and above all “frugal engineering”: highly efficient, functional design and exceptional value. It is hard to argue that anyone but Google is leading in that sort of services already.

[this was planned to be a short post that precedes a longer paper that I am currently writing – please excuse that it got lengthy]


Filed under: Cloud Computing, Online & Digital Lifestyle, Software

“Digital Lifestyle”: cause OR solution for “the filter bubble”?

With the advent of online media as a significant source of information for modern citizens, questions about perspective, unbiased perception and propagandism from consuming internet sources begin to surface. Are our Google search results – personalized intransparently based on our past search behavior, location and other factors – giving us what is actually relevant or just the segment of an information universe we tend to look at ? Are the newsfeeds on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Quora etc. just a narrow selection based on a set of criteria that puts us in an audience category which can be addressed by the advertisers that fund all these “free” platforms ?

The Economist reviews Eli Pariser’s book “The Filter Bubble: What the Internet is Hiding From You” and doubts some of his recommendations that include human curation of information, ombudsmen for social networks and others; however, the need for reflection on information creation and consumption online is reconfirmed.

Taking a step back from online media, it is worthwhile to think about how information was produced, distributed and consumed in the last 50 years of color TV. The gravitation from newspapers to TV originally started in the US where TV’s dominance in opinion making reaches back to about 1968; today it is ubiquitious around the globe. In sync with TV broadcast’s reach, the largest audience that advertisers could address were formed. With the modal shift of media to the internet, smaller but more homogenous audiences focused on specific interests and opinions were created.

Specialization typically enables innovation – in the more narrowly defined area – but the reduced generalized perspective comes at the cost of specialists missing certain insights outside their field of focus. Ultimately, nothing has really changed: a balanced and holistic perspective required TV spectators to watch different channels plus read some newspaper. The same goes for today’s adopters of a Digital Lifestyle: aside from using the most well known social networks and search engines, they have to read and digest other sources of information. Blogs, newspaper (online or even in print), news databases and hopefully some face-to-face conversations with trusted friends.

Filed under: Online & Digital Lifestyle

About Thomas Rupp

Economist & MBA focused on leveraging Disruptive Technologies in IT and Telecommunications, mostly for Enterprise clients. More than 15 years at Microsoft, currently as Global Program Manager for Cloud Support Transformation. Sloan Fellow 2010 (MSc in Management) at Stanford Business School. Ultra Marathoner, Foodie, Diver and Audiophile.